Below is a list of the different types of evidence ripped from legal resources on the web. Many people develop investigative skills sets from numerous sources. For some it just comes natural because of their way of thinking. It’s a knack.
Investigators, and persons in the legal profession use these types of evidence to build cases against criminals or you in an attempt to gain a conviction and/or on the defense side to defend.
The courts demand, or at least that is what you expect, that you provide evidence from a number of these different types of evidence. For example #8 (Testimonial Evidence) & #15 (hearsay evidence) should accompany several of the other evidence types so that #8 & #15 become supporting evidence. I’m no expert investigator but I have done hundreds of corporate related investigations related to vehicle accidents, employee complaints, customer complaints etc., and you have to apply these different types of evidence in those.
As a state manager for a large corporation, I once had a female customer who came to the office and complained that an employee was stalking her. It was not uncommon for customers to call our technicians with technical questions, as we were a service provider. The female customer claimed that the male employee kept calling her. Her mom was present and was willing to corroborate the story. I asked routine questions to find out what exactly he was saying when he called, and how exactly was he stalking her. I had the testimonial and now I needed the direct evidence, the physical evidence or something to finalize the case and terminate the employee. She showed me text messages from him that were all business related and I noticed that there were answers to questions from him to her, except the questions from her were missing from the texts, so they looked like broken conversations in text messages, and NONE of it was personal. When I pointed this out, the customer got defensive and insisted he was stalking her, and she explained several convincing cases where he had been driving past her house on a regular basis during the day and late at night. About that time, the male employee called the customers phone and before answering she said, “that’s him, you see he keeps calling me, he’s been stalking me for 2 weeks”. I asked her to put it on speaker phone of which she did. The mother was all excited that his call was perfect timing and I would hear what I needed to hear.
When the male company employee answered he stated his name and who he was with and said, “you called”? Without missing a beat the female customer made up a question about a service problem of which he answered and informed her that she would need to put a work order in so someone could go take a look at the problem. She asked if he would be him and he said, “it just depends where I am working that day, it could be someone else”.
When the call ended, I told her I had enough information and I that I would continue to look into this very serious situation and assured her that we do not take these things likely. I confirmed her address where the drive-by stalking was taking place and the estimated dates/times as best as she could remember. It was clear his calls were actually “return calls” from her. The texting evidence had been tampered with.
When the customer left, I got onto our Vehicle tracking site and called up his vehicle to determine his GPS path to see how often he would drive by her house. I pulled up all workorders for that address to grab dates and times of when the work transpired. The Dates & Times matched the GPS data on the day of the initial visit and he was there approximately 30 minutes. The customer signed the workorder which was the mother, not the female filing the complaint, but she was home at that time. At no time before or after that date did that employee drive his assigned vehicle to her house or past her house based on GPS mapping. In fact, the closest he came, after the initial legitimate visit was 4 blocks over and further up the street, all total the closest he came to her, taking into account her testimony was a half mile. There was no tampering of the GPS unit as the only way to disable it was to damage it.
The calls from the male employee were initiated by her. The mother’s statements as corroborating testimony was nothing of the sort, she merely bought into what her daughter was saying and could not contribute anything more.
The state HR director who we will call “Cathy” was patient and confident that I would get to the truth and she waited for the final findings and was very supportive of my effort and complimented me on my level of detail because that is what she expected as an HR person. The newly arrived Regional HR VP who we will call, “Cristina” was an educated idiot that did not belong in HR and she wanted me to terminate the employee based on the complaint alone. The testimony was enough. She was convinced the employee was a stalker. Her, like the customer saw a world full of stalkers. Never mind neither was stalk-able material. For Cristina, the truth was off limits. I refused termination based on the total lack of evidence based on discovery and facts presented.
The moral of this story has multiple layers.
1)We should never believe “testimony” alone without supporting evidence, from the list below.
2)We should look at the documented evidence pieces and draw conclusions based on that evidence.
3) Cristina was an idiot and did not belong in HR because…well…Human Resources requires a high level of common sense, of which she had none.
4) People make shit up, either driven by misunderstanding, over-active imaginations, they are liars from birth, or they have evil that runs through their bones.
5) People can convince others to buy into their lie, and they will never seek out evidence to challenge it.
6) Just because something looks a certain way, does not mean it is that way.
7) Some highly educated people are idiots. The country is NOT run by people with average intelligence. They are highly educated and look at what they have done to the country.
We can no longer be passive observers of the world around us relying only on television to inform us of what is going on. Reading, researching and investigating is what is needed today to keep ourselves informed.
If we don’t we will lose our country, and we are getting closer to that by the day. We sit and observe in anguish and we realize “the truth is off limits”, and it is disappointing. The solution is in the problem.
If we truly believe the truth is off limits, then it is also true that which is off limits is hiding the truth. We should recognize those things that are off limits to discuss and deep dive into them.
You will recognize what I am talking about when you find it. Because, that thing that is off limits, that thing I can’t tell you publicly to look for is exactly where the truth lies.
Types of Evidence from legal resources on the web
1. Direct evidence
2. Circumstantial evidence
3. Physical evidence
4. Individual physical evidence
5. Class physical evidence
6. Forensic evidence
7. Trace evidence
8. Testimonial evidence
9. Expert witness evidence
10. Digital evidence
11. Documentary evidence
12. Demonstrative evidence
13. Character evidence
14. Habit evidence
15. Hearsay evidence
16. Corroborating evidence
17. Exculpatory evidence
18. Admissible evidence
19. Inadmissible evidence
20. Insufficient evidence